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This page shows a report by the monthly journal "Scientific American" (Oktober 2004, Vol. 291, No. 4, p. 19) on the Atlantis article by Dr. Rainer W. Kühne in the archaeological journal "Antiquity".





Rainer W. Kühne was born on 23 May 1970 in Braunschweig, Germany. He obtained the Abitur (maturity) from the Gymnasium Martino-Katharineum in Braunschweig in May 1989. He made military service in Celle and Wesendorf from June 1989 to August 1990. His highest military degree was Obergefreiter. He obtained the diploma in physics (supervisor: Prof. Wolfgang Kundt) from the University of Bonn on 21 November 1995 and the Dr. rer. nat. (supervisor: Dr. Ute Löw) from the University of Dortmund on 19 July 2001.

R. W. Kühne: Betrachtungen zur von David Hestenes eingeführten "Raumzeit-Algebra". Diploma thesis (1995).
R. W. Kühne: Thermodynamics of Heisenberg Chains Coupled to Phonons. PhD thesis (2001).


08/1976 - 07/1980: Grundschule in Braunschweig
08/1980 - 07/1982: Orientierungsstufe in Braunschweig
08/1982 - 05/1989: Gymnasium Martino-Katharineum in Braunschweig, Examination: Abitur (maturity)
06/1989 - 08/1990: Military Service in Celle and Wesendorf, Highest degree: Obergefreiter
10/1990 - 10/1995: Studies of physics at Bonn University, Examination: Diploma in Physics
04/1996 - 03/2000: Studies of physics at Wuppertal University
04/2000 - 07/2001: Studies of physics at Dortmund University, Examination: PhD in Physics (Dr. rer. nat.)

Reviewer Service

Kühne acted as a reviewer for the following scientific journals:

1991: Physics Letters A (editor: Professor Peter Holland)
1998: International Journal of Modern Physics E (editor: Professor Dharam Ahluwalia)
2003: Apeiron (editor: Professor Valeri Dvoeglazov)
2003: Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology (editor: Professor Valeri Dvoeglazov)
2004: Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology (editor: Professor Augusto Espinoza-Garrido)
2006: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A
2007: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A


Protoscientific Atlantis Research

In January 1989, when he was a school boy, Kühne published his first article on Atlantis. In it he argued that Plato's Atlantis tale refers to Mycenaean Athens and the war of the Sea Peoples who attacked the Eastern Mediterranean countries around 1200 BC.

R. W. Kühne: Plädoyer für Atlantis. Ancient Skies 13, 1 (1989) 3-8.

Cold Fusion

In May 1991, when he was a first-year student, Kühne published his first article in a scientific journal. It was a review of cold fusion (nuclear fusion in a test tube). In March 1994 and in March 1995, together with Prof. Roman Sioda, Kühne presented his first theory, the extended micro hot fusion scenario, in order to explain the neutron emissions from Steven Jones type cold fusion .

R. W. Kühne: Cold Fusion: Pros and Cons. Physics Letters A 155 (1991) 467-472.
R. W. Kühne: Possible explanations for failures to detect cold fusion. Physics Letters A 159, 208-212 (1991).
R. W. Kühne: The Possible Hot Nature of Cold Fusion. Fusion Technology 25 (1994) 198-202.
R. W. Kühne and Roman E. Sioda: An Extended Micro Hot Fusion Model for Burst Activity in Deuterated Solids. Fusion Technology 27 (1995) 187-189.
R. W. Kühne: Response to "Strange Behavior of Tritiated Natural Water". Fusion Technology 37, 265-266 (2000).
R. W. Kühne: Bemerkungen zur kalten Fusion. arXiv preprint (2006).

Rotating Universe / Time Travel

In October 1997 Kühne suggested that the alignment of the rotation axes of the galaxies of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster is an effect of the intrinsically rotating Gödel universe. The Gödel universe is a strict solution of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity which includes closed time-like curves (time travel).

R. W. Kühne: On the Cosmic Rotation Axis. Modern Physics Letters A 12 (1997) 2473-2474.

Quantum Electromagnetodynamics / Dirac Magnetic Monopoles / Magnetic Photon

In December 1997 Kühne presented a generalization of quantum electrodynamics (a theory formulated by Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard Feynman) which he called quantum electromagnetodynamics. The new concept of this theory is a new kind of tensor coupling called velocity coupling. This concept modifies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, because it requires a velocity operator. This concept modifies Special Relativity, because it requires absolute motion and therefore violates the relativity principle. Kühne predicted a second kind of light which consists of Abdus Salam's magnetic photon. Kühne suggested that the magnetic photon rays may have been observed by August Kundt in the 19th century. Kühne's suggested experiment for the search for these magnetic photon rays has been performed in 2002 by Dr. Alipasha Vaziri (then a collaborator of Prof. Anton Zeilinger) and in 2004 by Prof. Roderic Lakes.

R. W. Kühne: A Model of Magnetic Monopoles. Modern Physics Letters A 12 (1997) 3153-3159
R. W. Kühne: Review of Quantum Electromagnetodynamics. Electromagnetic Phenomena 3, 86-91 (2003).
R. W. Kühne: Possible Observation of a Second Kind of Light. In: Has the Last Word Been Said on Classical Electrodynamics?, Eds.: A. Chubykalo, A. Espinoza, R. Smirnov-Rueda, and V. Onoochin (Rinton Press, Paramus, 2004, ISBN 1-58949-036-3), pp. 335-349.
Roderic S. Lakes: Experimental Test of Magnetic Photons. Physics Letters A 329 (2004) 298-300.

Quantum Gravity / Einstein-Cartan-Theory

In June 1999 Kühne discussed Einstein-Cartan theory, i. e. Cartan's torsion theory. This theory is a generalization of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Kühne argued that the spin-mass duality of this theory is analogous to the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics. Kühne argued that a quantized torsion theory requires the existence of a spin three boson called tordion whose rest mass is the Planck mass.

R. W. Kühne: Gauge Theory of Gravity Requires Massive Torsion Field. International Journal of Modern Physics A 14 (1999) 2531-2535.
R. W. Kühne: Cartan's Torsion: Necessity and Observational Evidence. In: Relativity, Gravitation, Cosmology: New Development. Eds. Valeri Dvoeglazov and Augusto Espinoza Garrido (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2004, ISBN 1-59033-981-9), pp. 37-42.


The electric-magnetic duality which Kühne suggested in his quantum electromagnetodynamics reads:

electric charge — magnetic charge
electric current — magnetic current
electric conductivity — magnetic conductivity
electric field strength — magnetic field strength
electric four-potential — magnetic four-potential
electric photon — magnetic photon
electric field constant — magnetic field constant
dielectricity number — magnetic permeability

Kühne suggested an analogy between the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics and the mass-spin duality of quantum Einstein-Cartan(-Sciama-Kibble) theory. It reads:

electric charge — magnetic charge
mass — spin

electric field constant — magnetic field constant
gravitational constant — reduced Planck constant

electric four-potential — magnetic four-potential
metric tensor — torsion tensor

electric photon — magnetic photon
graviton — tordion

Large Number Hypothesis / Fundamental Equation of Unified Field Theory

In September 1999 Kühne discussed the Paul Dirac large number hypothesis. Thereby Kühne introduced what he later called the fundamental equation of unified field theory. It reads: the reciprocal value of the fine-structure constant is equal to the absolute value of the logarithmus naturalis of the product of the Einstein field constant, the Planck mass, the speed of light, and the Hubble constant. This equation includes the characteristic constants of quantum electrodynamics and of concepts of quantum gravity. Kühne remarked that this equation predicts the Hubble constant to be 69.7 km/s/Mpc . Ten years later this value has been confirmed by the five-year WMAP data (70.5 +- 1.3) km/s/Mpc. The precision of Kühne's fundamental equation of unified field theory is 0.02% within the one standard deviation uncertainty. This equation predicts the Hubble constant to be 69.734(4) km/s/Mpc .

R. W. Kühne: Time-Varying Fine-Structure Constant Requires Cosmological Constant. Modern Physics Letters A 14 (1999) 1917-1922.
Eiichiro Komatsu et al.: Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Cosmological Interpretation. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 180 (2009) 330-376.

Critical Exponents
In November 1999 Kühne, together with Dr. Ute Löw, published his first mainstream work. It is an examination of the thermodynamical properties of a Heisenberg spin system with coupled Einstein phonons. In December 1999 Kühne was forced (by Prof. Fabricius) to retract a preprint in which he found evidence that the critical exponents can change the universality class continuously (i. e. the critical exponents depend not only on the dimension of the spin-system but also on the spin-phonon coupling strength and the phonon frequency).

R. W. Kühne and Ute Löw: Thermodynamical Properties of a Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Chain Coupled to Phonons. Physical Review B 60 (1999) 12125-12133.
C. Raas, U. Löw, G. S. Uhrig, and R. W. Kühne: Spin-Phonon Chains with Bond Coupling. Physical Review B 65, 144438 (2002).
R. W. Kühne: Critical Behavior of Heisenberg Chains Coupled to Phonons. arXiv preprint (1999)

Tartessos / Tarshish / Atlantis

In June 2004 Kühne argued that Plato's Atlantis tale refers to Mycenaean Athens and the war of the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC and to Tartessos from around 800 to 550 BC. Kühne's theory says: "Good fiction imitates facts. Plato declared that his Atlantis tale is philosophical fiction invented to describe his fictitious ideal state in the case of war. Kühne suggests that Plato has used three historical elements for this tale. (i) Greek tradition on Mycenaean Athens for the description of ancient Athens, (ii) Egyptian records on the wars of the Sea Peoples for the description of the war of the Atlanteans, and (iii) oral tradition from Syracuse about Tartessos for the description of the city and geography of Atlantis." This publication aroused world-wide media interest. Kühne's work motivated an archaeological expedition in the Donana National Park. The members of the expedition include Prof. Sebastian Celestino Perez, Prof. Juan Jose Villarias Robles, Prof. Antonio Rodriguez Ramirez, Prof. Angel Leon Conde, Dr. Victorino Mayoral Herrera, Dr. Tomas Cordero Ruiz, and Dr. Jose Antonio Lopez Saez. John Gill wrote about this expedition from July 2006 and remarked that if Kühne has found Atlantis, or just Tartessos, this is a discovery to rival Heinrich Schliemann at Troy.

R. W. Kühne: A Location for "Atlantis"? Antiquity 78, 300 (2004).
R. W. Kühne: Did Ulysses Travel to Atlantis? In: Science and Technology in Homeric Epics. Ed. S. A. Paipetis, Series: History of Mechanism and Machine Science, Vol. 6 (Springer, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4020-8783-7), pp. 509-514.
El Pais: La civilización perdida, 3 January 2010 (reports on the possible discovery of Tartessos-Atlantis)
John Gill: Andalucia - A Cultural History. Oxford University Press (2009).

Media Reports on Atlantis Work

Reports in Popular Scientific Magazines

Scientific American
National Geographic
New Scientist
EARSEL Newsletter'04.pdf

Reports in Magazines

Der Stern
Svenska Magasinet

Reports in Newspapers

El Pais (possible discovery of Tartessos-Atlantis, 2010)
Daily Excelsior
The Epoch Times
Die Welt
Berliner Morgenpost
Hamburger Abendblatt
El Mundo
El Pais (first report)
El Pais (second report)
Aksam Gazetesi
Evenimentul Zulei
Bosanska Kostajnica
Wales Online
El Periodico de Aragon
La Voz de Galicia
Star Gazete
La Voz
El Periodico Mediterraneo
ABC (Spain)

Reports in Radio and Television

ABC (Australia)
Radiotelevisione Italiana,9217,80336,00.html
BBC Mundo (first report)
BBC Mundo (second report)
Cesky Rozhlas
Radio Praha
Polskie Radio
BBC Brasil (first report)
BBC Brasil (second report)
BBC Polish

Reports in Books

Joel Levy: The Atlas of Atlantis and Other Lost Civilizations: The Complete Guide to the History and Wisdom of Atlantis, Lemuria, Mu and Other Ancient Civilizations. Godsfield Press, 2007.

Brian Haughton: Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries. New Page Books, 2007 & Castle Books, 2008.

Brian Haughton: Verlorenes Wissen, verbotene Wahrheit: Die geheimen Mysterien der Weltgeschichte. Heyne, 2008.

Denise Rinaldo: Cities of the Dead: Finding Lost Civilizations (24/7: Science Behind the Scenes). Franklin Watts, 2008.

John Gill: Andalucia: A Cultural History (Landscapes of the Imagination). Signal Books, 2008 & Oxford University Press, 2008.

Rainer Krämer: Das Rätsel des Aristokles. Twilight-Line GbR, 2009.

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